Odontogenesis: 5 Stages Of Tooth Development
Have you ever wondered how and when your teeth form? Odontogenesis is the medical term used to describe the formation and eruption of teeth — it is a process that begins before birth, as an article in the book Reference Module in Biomedical Sciences outlines.
This process occurs in several phases to form the various parts of a tooth. We have two sets of teeth: deciduous teeth, which are sometimes referred to as primary or baby teeth, and permanent teeth, often known as secondary or adult teeth. The two sets undergo the same developmental process to form, although permanent teeth are formed later than deciduous teeth since they eventually replace them. Here are the various phases of odontogenesis.
1. Bud Stage
This first stage occurs in the eighth week in utero. At this time, cells known as dental epithelium bud from a thick band of cells called the dental lamina, which forms inside the upper and lower jaws. These cells will eventually evolve and shape the tooth germ, which contains soft tissues necessary to grow a tooth.
2. Cap Stage
During this stage, cells start to shape the external layer of the tooth, framing a cap that sits on the remainder of the tooth bud. This cap is known as the polish organ since it will later form the cells that produce veneer. The remaining tooth bud, known as the dental papilla, will make the two inside layers of the tooth: the dentin and the mash.
One more sac of cells, called the dental follicle, encompasses both the veneer organ and the dental papilla. This sac contains veins and nerves. By the cap stage, three distinct constructions make up the tooth microorganism: the veneer organ, the dental papilla, and the dental follicle.
3. Ringer Stage
At this point, the enamel organ develops into a bell shape, and two events take place. First, cells of the enamel organ differentiate, which means they change functions. Depending on their new capacity, they will be classified as one of four cell groups:
√ Inner enamel epithelium
√ Outer enamel epithelium
√ Stratum intermedium
√ Stellate reticulum
Together, these cell groups work to develop the enamel layer of the tooth. During the second event in this stage, the enamel epithelium folds into the future shape of the tooth crown, and the dental lamina begins to break down.
4. Crown and Root Formation
The two outer layers of your teeth, enamel, and dentin, form during the crown stage. Ameloblast cells are liable for creating enamel, while odontoblast cells create dentin. These cells come from the enamel epithelium and the dental papilla.
The tooth root, made of root dentin and root canals (where dental pulp lives), forms from a mix of three structures: the dental papilla, the dental follicle, and one more important group of cells known as Hertwig’s epithelial root sheath.
5. Eruption stage
When the crown of the tooth has form and the root has started to develop, the tooth moves upward toward the oral cavity so it can erupt into the right position. A portion of the jawbone above the tooth will resorb and other connective tissues will separate to help the tooth move. Depending on the type and position of the tooth, each will erupt at different ages. Primary teeth will erupt first, starting around 6 months of age.
The permanent teeth will develop in the same manner as the primary teeth, beginning at 20 weeks in utero and continuing 10 months after birth. The third molars, or wisdom teeth, are not completely formed until an individual is approximately 5 years old, explains the Reference Module in Biomedical Sciences article.
Issues With Tooth Development
Odontogenesis is an intricate process that can occasionally go off track. If teeth didn’t develop properly, individuals might experience at least one of these dental issues:
√ Missing teeth, also known as hypodontia
√ Excess teeth, which are called supernumerary teeth or hypodontia
√ Misshaped teeth
Odontogenesis is an amazing cycle that gives you the tools you need to eat, talk smile. But, if you or a friend or family member experiences one of these rare developmental anomalies, converse with your dentist. They will give you advice on your treatment options and help you achieve a healthy smile.